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《南京唯纳教育》托福阅读细节题解题的基本原则

2019-11-0816返回列表


细节题是托福阅读中非常重要的一个题型,出题频率比较高,它是针对文章的具体内容进行提问的,我们在练习时可以遵循以下两个原则:

 

符合题干

我们在解答细节题的时候,需要注意的是看清题干,正确选项必须对应题干所问的内容,也就是答案需要符合题干。

 

我们来看下面的例题

Perhaps so much time has passed that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images, but their mystique only adds to their importance. Certainly a great art exists, and by its existence reveals that ancient human beings were not without intelligence, skill, and sensitivity.

 

According to paragraph 6, why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered?

A. Keeping the paintings a mystery will increase their importance.

B. The artists hid their tools with great intelligence and skill.

C. Too many years have gone by since the images were painted.

D. Answering the question is not very important to scholars.

 

题目答案选C 但我们看看选项 Keeping the paintings a mystery will increase their importance(保持壁画的神秘性会增加它们的重要性)和文章中but their mystique only adds to their importance (它们的神秘性只会增加他们的重要性)是同义改写,但为什么不能选A? 我们再看一下题目,问的是why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered?(为什么关于洞穴画的这个令人迷惑的问题从来都没有被人们回答?),文章里Perhaps so much time has passed that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images(已经过去了这么久的时间,以至于没有令人满意的答案),so … that 表示因果关系,所以答案选C, 选项A虽然文章中提到,但没有回答题目的问题,不符合题干。

 

我们再看下面的例题:

An offshoot of the biological approach called sociobiology suggests that aggression is natural and even desirable for people. Sociobiology views much social behavior, including aggressive behavior, as genetically determined. Consider Darwin's theory of evolution. Darwin held that many more individuals are produced than can find food and survive into adulthood. A struggle for survival follows. Those individuals who possess characteristics that provide them with an advantage in the struggle for existence are more likely to survive and contribute their genes to the next generation. In many species, such characteristics include aggressiveness. Because aggressive individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce, whatever genes are linked to aggressive behavior are more likely to be transmitted to subsequent generations.

 

According to Darwin's theory of evolution, members of a species are forced to struggle for survival because

A. not all individuals are skilled in finding food

B. individuals try to defend their young against attackers

C. many more individuals are born than can survive until the age of reproduction

D. individuals with certain genes are more likely to reach adulthood

 

题目问的是According to Darwin's theory of evolution, members of a species are forced to struggle for survival because(根据达尔文进化论,物种成员被迫为生存而战,原因是什么),回到文章Consider Darwin's theory of evolution. Darwin held that many more individuals are produced than can find food and survive into adulthood. A struggle for survival follows. (达尔文认为比起能够找到食物并存活下来达到成年的个体,有更多的个体产生,因此出现了为生存而战),所以答案选C 再看选项D individuals with certain genes are more likely to reach adulthood (带有某些基因的个体更容易达到成年),再看文章 Those individuals who possess characteristics that provide them with an advantage in the struggle for existence are more likely to survive and contribute their genes to the next generation(那些拥有为生存而战的优势的特性的个体更容易存活下来,并将基因传给下一代),选项D也是文章的同义改写,为什么不能选呢,因为不符合题干

 

二.同义改写

细节题题干问的是文章的内容,考察的是paraphrase(同义改写)的能力。我们来看下面的例题

 

Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demands of the laws of physics, not the sculptor's aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze).

 

According to paragraph 2, sculptors in the Italian Renaissance stopped using cannonballs in bronze statues of horses because

A. they began using a material that made the statues weigh less

B. they found a way to strengthen the statues internally

C. the aesthetic tastes of the public had changed over time

D. the cannonballs added too much weight to the statues

 

我们首先看题干,sculptors in the Italian Renaissance stopped using cannonballs in bronze statues of horses because(在意大利文艺复兴时期雕刻家不再在铜像中使用“cannonball”,因为)。我们首先找到For example, in the early Italian Renaissance,定位句大致有方向了,再往后看,最后一句the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze). cannonball迅速消失当雕刻家学会了如何加强这个雕塑的内部支撑力),所以,这题答案选B选项they found a way to strengthen the statues internally,它正好是原文对应句sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue的同义改写。

 

我们再看下面的例子

 

It should be obvious that cetaceanswhales, porpoises, and dolphinsare mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like. Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.

 

In paragraph 1, what does the author say about the presence of a blowhole in cetaceans?

A. It clearly indicates that cetaceans are mammals.

B. It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals.

C. It is the main difference between cetaceans and land-dwelling mammals.

D. It cannot yield clues about the origins of cetaceans.

 

我们先看题干what does the author say about the presence of a blowhole in cetaceans?(作者提到cetaceans出现blowhole,是想说明什么呢?),我们回到文章看到一句话,Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals. flukeblowhole的出现,不能隐藏他们和陆生哺乳动物之间的同源关系),所以选B选项It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals.(它不能隐藏鲸类是哺乳动物这个事实),文章对应句和选项同义改写,conceal和原文中的disguise 是同义替换词。尤其要注意的是,如果disguiseconcealaffinity这些词都不认识,这题就很难解答了,因此同学们平时一定要记得背单词。

 

以上就是我们在做细节题需要注意的地方,正确选项应该是同义改写,并符合题干,同学们平时需要多练习,分析错误选项。