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《南京唯纳教育》托福阅读“拍了拍”你并向你展示了句子插入题的解题原则

2020-07-1634返回列表

托福阅读句子插入题的解题原则

  插入句子题一般出现在托福阅读文章倒数第二个题型,相对来说是比较容易拿分的题型,同学们平时好好练习,争取可以不丢分。

  首先,来看看这个题型的特征:

Look at the four squares [[] ] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

  在做句子插入题时,可以先看一下被插入的句子,答题的时候注意以下几点:

一. 指代关系

当看到被插入句子中含有thisthatthesethosesuch等词时,一般情况指代的内容应该在前文出现过,句子应该插在前文出现的句子之后。我们来看下面的例子

Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.

 

Very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. In 1979, a team looking for fossils in northern Pakistan found what proved to be the oldest fossil whale. The fossil was officially named Pakicetus in honor of the country where the discovery was made. Pakicetus was found embedded in rocks formed from river deposits that were 52 million years old. The river that formed these deposits was actually not far from an ancient ocean known as the Tethys Sea.

 

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

This is a question that has puzzled scientists for ages.

Where would the sentence best fit?

被插入句子中有this指代词,意思是:这是一个困扰了科学家很多年的问题。那么,上文应该是提到了问题, 所以被插入的句子应该放在疑问句之后:How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged?(陆地上的哺乳动物和海洋鲸类之间有何区别?)接下来讲这是个问题,前后连接很顺,答案选B

 

二. 转折关系

  如果被插入的句子中含有howeverbutyet这些转折关系的词,那么被插入的句子应该放在和本句之间逻辑转折的句子后面。我们看下面的例句:

 

Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements of the human body; a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces, and equipment, similar to the bodys vital organs and systems. The equipment includes plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air-conditioning. Of course in early architecturesuch as igloos and adobe structuresthere was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin were often one.

 

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

However, some modern architectural designs, such as those using folded plates of concreter or air-inflated structures, are again unifying skeleton and skin.

Where would the sentence best fit?

  需要插入的句子中含有however,意味着此句和上一句之间的语义应该是转折关系。第一句讲的是现代建筑设计和人体结构的相似性,第二句出现The equipment指代的是第一句的内容,第三句讲的是:早期的建筑-比如圆顶建筑和土坯建筑,没有这样的设备,皮肤和骨骼常常合在一起。需要插入的句子中,modern和第三句中的early形成转折关系,还有are again unifying skeleton and skin和第三句and the skeleton and skin were often one形成对应关系,所以答案选D,插在第三句之后.

 

三. 因果关系

  如果需要插入的句子中含有thereforeas a resultsohenceconsequently等词,可以利用因果关系来解题。

 

看下面的例子:

The subjects of the paintings are mostly animals. The paintings rest on bare walls, with no backdrops or environmental trappings. Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art. Another explanation for the focus on animals might be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting. This theory is suggested by evidence of chips in the painted figures, perhaps made by spears thrown at the drawings. But if improving their hunting luck was the chief motivation for the paintings, it is difficult to explain why only a few show signs of having been speared. Perhaps the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals. Cave art seems to have reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period, when the herds of game were decreasing.

 

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Therefore, if the paintings were connected with hunting, some other explanation is needed.

Where would the sentence best fit?

  需要插入的句子开头是therefore(因此),那么上一句应该是插入的句子的原因,前面讲了原因,这句是结果。本句的意思:因此,如果绘画与打猎有关,需要有其他的解释。第一个方块后句子中的this theory和前文相连,第二个方块后句子的意思:(But if improving their hunting luck was the chief motivation for the paintings, it is difficult to explain why only a few show signs of having been speared)如果提升打猎的好运气是绘画的主要动机,就很难解释为什么只有少数画上有被矛戳过的痕迹。所以需要有其他的解释,插入句放在第三个方块,答案选C

四. 举例关系

  托福阅读文章中经常会出现,前面先给出一个观点,后面再举例。最常见的词为:for examplefor instance

 

我们看下面的例子:

Although the ecosystem concept was very popular in the 1950s and 1960s, it is no longer the dominant paradigm. Gleason's arguments against climax and biome are largely valid against ecosystems as well. Furthermore, the number of interactions is so great that they are difficult to analyze, even with the help of large computers. Finally, younger ecologists have found ecological problems involving behavior and life-history adaptations more attractive than measuring physical constants. Nevertheless, one still speaks of the ecosystem when referring to a local association of animals and plants, usually without paying much attention to the energy aspects.

 

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

They may be more interested in researching, for example, the adaptations that some aquatic animals undergo to survive in dry desert environments.

Where would the sentence best fit ?

  需要插入的句子中,有for example,整句话的意思:他们可能对研究一些水生动物在干燥的沙漠环境中生存而经历的进化更感兴趣。插入句中more interested和第三个方块之前句子中的more attractive对应,the adaptations that some aquatic animals undergo to survive in dry desert environments.

behavior and life-history adaptations对应,所以插入句应该放在第三个方块,答案选C.

 

以上是托福阅读插入句子题在答题中需要注意的主要原则,同学们平时灵活运用,多精读句子之间的逻辑关系,自然就能提高答题正确率。